In the USA, can ADHD be spotted in nursery school, primary school, high school

In the USA, the level of awareness is variable, but I am sure it is better than the UK.

Can teachers, spot ADHD, are they diagnosed ? Are the parents notified ?

If the condition, is there a process for diagnosis, referral, treatment, if anything ?

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Spot, or diagnose? Big difference, and not sure which you might be meaning.
Also, there are some pretty big boundaries on what an educator in the USA can say to a parent. My wife was an after-school enrichment program leader (between school ending and parents getting off work, her program, run by the school itself, would give structured homework time, further education, and playtime and a snack or two), and there was no way she was allowed to tell a parent “I think your kid has X issue. He should probably be looked at.” She would be fired and probably blacklisted in the education world.
What they CAN do is refer the student to be assessed by a school counselor or some such. “Your child is struggling to focus in class,” “I notice your child is not turning in homework, or it is incomplete” things like that. Followed up with “Maybe they could see a school counselor or an occupational therapist to see if there is some underlying issue they are struggling with and don’t know how to express?”
That would be the normal route for diagnosis for a child.

Can it be spotted? Oh yeah. Often. But you gotta know what you are seeing. I can look at someone and sometimes within minutes tell they have ADHD, child or adult. But now I know what I am looking for. Sometimes it’s borderline. Sometimes I can’t tell, at least not right away. But over time the more obvious symptoms will show and someone who knows what to look for will be able to spot it. They may or may not be able to say anything. They may or may not recognize it. Heck, lots of people trained in looking for it miss it in their own kids. Blind spots happen.
Hope that helps.

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